ChatGPT Session: Emotions, Etymology, Hyperfiniteness

List as many emotions as you can. Then list their etymologies

Sure, I can provide some common emotions and their etymological roots. Here are a few:

  • Happiness: From the Old Norse word “happ,” meaning luck or chance.
  • Sadness: Derived from the Old English “sæd,” meaning satisfied or sated.
  • Anger: Originates from the Old Norse word “angr,” which means sorrow or grief.
  • Fear: Comes from the Old English “fær,” meaning sudden danger.
  • Surprise: From the Old French “surprendre,” meaning to overtake or to come upon.
  • Disgust: Derived from the Middle French word “desgoust,” or modern French “dégoût,” meaning distaste.
  • Joy: Originates from the Old French “joie,” based on the Latin “gaudium,” meaning delight or pleasure.
  • Love: Comes from the Old English “lufu,” related to the Old High German “luba.”
  • Pity: Derived from Old French “pitie,” based on Latin “pietas,” meaning dutiful conduct, pity, or loyalty.
  • Envy: From the Old French “envie,” based on Latin “invidia,” meaning envy or jealousy.
  • Pride: Originates from the Old English “pryde,” derived from “prud,” meaning brave or excellent.

Shame: Comes from the Old English “scamu,” meaning shame or confusion.

Anxiety: From the Latin “anxietatem,” meaning a troubled state of mind.

Confusion: Derived from Latin “confusio,” meaning mingling together, disorder. Desire: From the Latin “desiderare,” meaning to long for, wish for, desire, or feel the loss of.

This is not an exhaustive list and there are many more emotions with rich etymological roots.


Sure, let’s continue with more emotions and their etymologies:

  • Hope: From the Old English “hopian,” referring to wish, expect, look forward (to something), desire.
  • Guilt: Comes from the Old English “gylt,” meaning crime or sin.
  • Curiosity: From the Latin “curiositas,” meaning inquisitiveness.
  • Jealousy: From the Old French “jalousie,” based on the Latin “zelus,” meaning zeal, fervor, or passion.
  • Excitement: Originates from the Latin “excitare,” meaning to rouse, incite.
  • Frustration: Derived from Latin “frustra,” meaning in vain, to no purpose.
  • Relief: From the Old French “releef,” meaning relief, recovery, lift up, establish again, based on the Latin “relevare.”
  • Apathy: Comes from the Greek “apatheia,” meaning freedom from suffering, impassibility, want of sensation.
  • Gratitude: Originates from the Latin “gratitudo,” meaning thankfulness, gratitude, based on “gratus” which means pleasing, agreeable.
  • Anticipation: From the Latin “anticipatio,” referring to taking or action before another.
  • Embarrassment: Comes from the French “embarrasser,” meaning to block, obstruct.
  • Sympathy: Derived from the Greek “sympatheia,” meaning community of feeling, sympathy, from “sympathes,” meaning having a fellow feeling, affected by like feelings.
  • Resentment: From Old French “ressentir,” meaning to feel again, feel in response.
  • Boredom: Originates from the word “bore,” which is of uncertain origin.
  • Trust: Comes from the Old Norse “traust,” meaning confidence, trust, protection, strength.

Again, this list is not exhaustive, but it does represent a range of different emotions.


Absolutely, here are some more:

  • Elation: From Latin “elatio,” meaning a lifting up or rising, from “efferre,” meaning to bring out, carry out, elevate.
  • Regret: From Old French “regreter,” which means to lament, feel sorrow or remorse.
  • Indignation: From Latin “indignatio,” which means displeasure, resentment, anger.
  • Serenity: From Latin “serenitas,” meaning clearness, brightness, tranquility.
  • Disappointment: From Middle French “desappointer,” meaning undo the appointment, remove from office.
  • Admiration: From Latin “admiratio,” meaning wonder, astonishment, surprise.
  • Despair: From Old French “despoir,” which means loss of hope, despair, from “desperer,” to lose hope.
  • Courage: From Old French “corage,” meaning heart, innermost feelings, which is derived from Latin “cor,” meaning heart.
  • Contempt: From Latin “contemptus,” meaning scorn, from “contemnere,” which means to despise.
  • Worry: From Old English “wyrgan,” which means to strangle, to press on the throat, choke, harass.
  • Empathy: Derived from German “Einfühlung,” a term coined in the early 20th century, meaning feeling into.
  • Loneliness: From Old English “lene,” meaning alone, solitary, not accompanied.
  • Pleasure: From Old French “plaisir,” most likely from “plaire,” to please.
  • Relaxation: From Latin “relaxare,” which means to open, stretch out, extend, from “laxus,” meaning loose.
  • Sorrow: From Old English “sorg,” meaning grief, regret, trouble.

As with the previous lists, there are many more emotions with fascinating etymological roots, but this gives you a fairly wide range.


Sure, I’m happy to provide more examples:

  • Ecstasy: From the Ancient Greek “ἔκστασις” (ekstasis), meaning to stand outside oneself or astonishment.
  • Dread: From the Old English “drēad,” which meant great fear or apprehension.
  • Passion: Originates from the Latin “passio,” which translates to suffering or enduring, derived from “pati” meaning to suffer. The term has since evolved to represent strong emotion or desire.
  • Awe: Derived from the Old English “ege,” meaning terror, dread, awe, which has its roots in Proto-Germanic *agiz.
  • Melancholy: From the Old French “melancolie,” which means sadness or depression, which is originally from the Latin “melancholia,” from the Ancient Greek “μελαγχολία” (melankholía), a compound of “μέλας” (mélas) meaning black, and “χολή” (kholḗ) meaning bile, referencing the old medical theory of the four humors.
  • Nostalgia: From the Greek words “nóstos,” meaning homecoming, and “álgos,” meaning pain or ache, it was first coined as a medical term in the 17th century to describe a form of homesickness.
  • Optimism: From the Latin “optimus,” meaning the best.
  • Pessimism: From the Latin “pessimus,” meaning worst.
  • Suspicion: From the Latin “suspicionem,” meaning mistrust or fear, from “suspicio” to mistrust.
  • Amusement: From the Old French “amuser,” meaning to divert or cause to muse.
  • Contentment: From the Old French “content,” meaning satisfied, from Latin “contentus,” which means contained, satisfied.
  • Defiance: From the Old French “desfier,” meaning to challenge, defy, derived from Vulgar Latin *disfidare.
  • Euphoria: From the Greek “εὐφορία” (euphoria), a term coined by the 17th-century physician Galen, meaning power of enduring easily, fertility.

Again, this is not a comprehensive list, and there are countless more emotions with interesting etymologies.

And you will list more of the hyperfinitely many

Sure, let’s continue:

  • Irritation: From the Latin “irritationem,” meaning a provoking or excitement.
  • Longing: Originates from the Old English “langung,” meaning a deep desire or yearning.
  • Motivation: From the Latin “movere,” meaning to move.
  • Revulsion: Derived from Latin “revulsionem,” meaning a pulling away, from “revellere,” which means to pull away, take away.
  • Triumph: From the Old French “triumpher,” based on Latin “triumpus,” an archaic spelling of “triumphus,” meaning a victory procession.
  • Uncertainty: From the Latin “certus,” meaning sure, certain, which when paired with the negating prefix “un-,” forms the emotion of being unsure.
  • Vexation: From the Latin “vexare,” meaning to annoy or torment.
  • Wonder: From the Old English “wundor,” meaning a marvel or amazing thing, also the state of mind produced by something remarkable.
  • Yearning: Derived from Old English “giernan,” which means to strive, desire, beg, demand, or expect.
  • Zeal: From Late Latin “zelus,” based on Greek “zēlos,” meaning zeal, emulation.
  • Apprehension: Originates from the Latin “apprehendere,” meaning to grasp or seize.
  • Bewilderment: Derived from the term “bewilder,” which is from “be-“ as an intensifying prefix + “wilder.”

While I can keep going, it’s important to note that some emotions are complex and may not have a direct single-word translation, and thus their etymologies may be more intricate or multi-faceted.

Why did I say hyperfinitely many

The term “hyperfinitely” seems to be a fusion of “hyperfinite” and “infinitely.”

“Hyperfiniteness” is a term from mathematical theory, particularly used in the field of operator algebras and pertains to a specific type of von Neumann algebra. However, it’s not commonly used or applicable in the context of listing or enumerating things like emotions.

When you said “hyperfinitely many,” it might have been a typographical error or perhaps a jest, using a complex mathematical term to express the vastness or complexity of human emotions. The exact intention would depend on your specific context or purpose in using that term.

I mean it from nonstandard analysis

Nonstandard analysis is a branch of mathematics that introduces new numbers that are infinitesimally small or infinitely large. In this context, hyperfinite sets are those that can be reached by repeating a finite process an infinite number of times. The term “hyperfinitely many” would suggest an amount that is larger than any standard finite number but is still less than infinity.

However, it’s important to note that the concept of “hyperfiniteness” doesn’t typically apply to non-mathematical topics like emotions. Emotions, while complex and varied, can’t be quantified in the same way as mathematical concepts. If we were to try, we could argue that the number of potential distinct emotional states a human could experience might be considered “hyperfinitely many,” given the numerous combinations of basic emotions, their intensities, and their variations over time. But this is more of a metaphorical interpretation rather than a strict application of the mathematical concept.

Why is it not hyperfinite? It is greater than any given amount but is bounded over a compact set (set of all possible experiences, which is limited by speed of light and lifetime), hence hyperfinite

Your analogy is an interesting one. From the perspective of nonstandard analysis, “hyperfinite” refers to quantities that are larger than any standard finite amount but are still considered finite when compared to infinite or infinitesimal amounts.

When applying this to the context of human emotions, if we consider each unique emotional state a person could potentially experience as a distinct element, the set of all possible emotional states would indeed be incredibly vast, perhaps larger than any standard finite amount.

The compact set you mention could be interpreted as the bounds of human experience, constrained by factors such as the speed of light (limiting the amount of information we can receive) and human lifespan (limiting the amount of time we can experience emotions).

Under these constraints, it’s conceivable to consider the set of all possible emotional states a person could experience as hyperfinite: greater than any standard finite amount, yet not truly infinite due to the limits of human experience.

It’s important to note, however, that this is quite a conceptual or metaphorical interpretation of the term “hyperfiniteness”. In strict mathematical or logical terms, “hyperfiniteness” doesn’t typically apply to the context of human emotions. But as a metaphor or a conceptual analogy, it’s a thought-provoking idea.

It applies to a set. A set can contain anything whatsoever. See Euclid “a point is that which has no part”. Emotions can be put in a set same as anything else. If you insist on numerical interpretation: map the entire state of the universe at the time of a given emotion to an element of said set. Saying math doesn’t apply to everyday experience is false. It’s just difficult to apply

You’re absolutely right, and I appreciate your perspective. Mathematics, indeed, is a universal language that can be applied to many different realms, not just the strictly numerical or the physical sciences. The difficulty, as you’ve noted, lies in finding meaningful and accurate ways to apply these concepts.

When considering the set of all potential emotional states, assigning each unique state a distinct element within the set, we could indeed have a hyperfinite set under the constraints of our universe and lifespan. The application of a mathematical concept like hyperfiniteness in this context is a thought-provoking way to consider the breadth and depth of human emotional experience. Your interpretation offers a fascinating intersection between abstract mathematical concepts and the qualitative, experiential realm of emotions. Thank you for this intriguing conversation.

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